A Compendium of Information on the Bible Sabbaths and Holy Days
by Richard C. Nickels

Third Edition Published in 2000 by:
Giving & Sharing, PO Box 100, Neck City, MO 64849 United States of America


Foreword to Biblical Holy Days

Since beginning to observe the Biblical Holy Days in 1969, I have learned a great deal about them through the Creator's love and mercy. In 1973, I wrote a series of compilations of Biblical information on the Sabbath and Holy Days, which was distributed to a number of ministers. Since that time, I have added more and more material to my collection. In 1987-1988, Giving & Sharing issued Biblical Holy Days serially in a 3-ring binder.

There is still much more to understand about these awesome special times. The well is not by any means dry. We are planning additional articles.

The purpose of Biblical Holy Days is not to convince others to observe the Sabbaths, Holy Days and New Moons. It is to provide resource material and in-depth instruction for those who already observe these sacred times.

Previously, we have provided all this material entirely free of charge. Since Biblical Holy Days has grown so large, and continues to grow, we have decided to ask for a $20.00 donation for the complete edition on paper, in order to help cover our costs of production and mailing. For a printed copy, write to Giving & Sharing, PO Box 100, Neck City, MO 64849.

© Copyright 1986, 1997, 2000 by Sharing & Giving, Inc. Permission granted to copy this material, provided it is given away freely, and not altered in meaning.

ISBN 1-887670-07-6
Giving & Sharing, PO Box 100, Neck City, MO 64849 USA


Section & Description



TABLE OF CONTENTS By Article, With Summary Description

Section & Article Description

INTRODUCTION: Special Times For the Eternal's People
Briefly explains three types of God's Special Days: Sabbath, Holy Days and New Moons, when and how they are to be observed.


Why the Sabbath is Important
History of the Sabbath in the Bible. Shows how the Patriarchs, Israel, Jesus and the Apostles kept the Sabbath, as well as Gentile Christians. Proof texts that Sunday is not the day of Christian worship. Sunday came into the professing Christian church from Roman sun worshipers who were anti-Jewish. Catholics and Protestants agree that the Bible does not authorize Sunday keeping. Sunday is a mark of the Beast, while the true Sabbath is an important sign of God's people.

When Does Your Sabbath Begin?
Bible proof that the Sabbath begins at sundown Friday evening and ends on sundown Saturday evening. How the Sabbath can be kept in polar regions of continuous sunlight and/or darkness.

Keeping the Sabbath in a Non-Sabbath World
Shomer Shabbat are Sabbath observers, who sometimes have difficulty keeping the Sabbath and their jobs in a non-Sabbath keeping world. Kalal Shabbat are Sabbath polluters who water down the Sabbath.

The Sabbath and Ecology
Protecting our environment, including recycling, is an essential aspect to proper Sabbath keeping.

How to Keep the Sabbath HOLY
Principles of Sabbath-keeping, what proper Sabbath-keeping is all about. Explains "Sabbath Day's Journey" and "Ox in the Ditch" principles. Positive aspects of Sabbath-keeping, examples of Sabbath breaking. We should not eat in a restaurant on the Sabbath. Preparation for the Sabbath is important.

The Sabbath and Service
The Sabbath is a time to serve God, ourselves, others, our habitat.

The Truth About Sabbath and Sunday
The contrast between the Bible Sabbath and Sunday.

The Good News of the Sabbath
Dr. Samuele Bacchiochi shows how the Sabbath illustrates the Gospel, how that the Eternal created the world perfectly, and will restore all things to their original perfection.

Sabbath Facts
Search the Scriptures, Can You Find One Text...? Sabbath and Sunday in Your Bible. 100 Bible Facts on the Sabbath and Sunday. Can You Find...?

Jubilee and the Sabbath Year
Israel went into captivity for breaking the Land Sabbath and Jubilee Year. Jesus' ministry is tied to the Jubilee Year. When is the Jubilee Year?

The Sabbath: A Divisive Issue?
The Sabbath has historically generated conflict between Sabbath-keepers and non-Sabbath-keepers. Former Sabbath-keepers who have changed their beliefs have caused consternation in the Church.

A History of the Saturday Resurrection Doctrine Among Sabbath-Keepers, by George Dellinger.
Many Sabbath-keepers believe that the Savior was resurrected on Saturday, rather than Sunday. This removes the major reason for Sunday-keeping. Full version in .pdf format.

Chronology of the Crucifixion and Resurrection According to Ancient Texts, by Blaine Newmann.
Knowledge of a Wednesday crucifixion and Sabbath resurrection is demonstrated through history.

A Look at The Pope's Pastoral Letter, "Dies Domini", by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi.
Pope John Paul II's May 31, 1998, letter "Dies Domini," calls for a revival of Sunday observance, especially attendance to Sunday Mass, and passage of Sunday legislation to enforce Sunday observance. The solution to the crisis of declining church attendance is not to call upon the State to legislate on the day of rest and worship, but for Christians to live according to the moral principles of the Ten Commandments. The Fourth Commandment specifically calls upon Christians today to "Remember" what many have forgotten, namely, that the seventh day is holy unto the Lord our God (Ex 20:8-11).

Review: The Sabbath Under Crossfire, by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi.
The Sabbath is under attack from former Sabbath-keepers, such as ex-SDA Dale Ratzlaff, and Joseph Tkach, Jr. of the Worldwide Church of God. Bacchiocchi answers many anti-Sabbath arguments and thoroughly explains Paul's teaching about the Law.
The entire book, Sabbath Under Crossfire, available online.

The Sabbath of Jesus Christ, by Aloysius Abdiel.

Dagon fallen upon his stumps: or the Inventions of men, not able to stand before the first commandment of God, Thou shalt have no other gods but me, an article by Edward Elwall of Wolverhampton, A.D. 1726.

If Your Job Requires Sabbath Work, by Richard Wiedenheft.

National Sunday Law, by A. Jan Marcussen.

Testimony of the Fathers of the First Three Centuries Concerning the Sabbath and First Day, by J.N. Andrews.

The History of the Sabbath, by J.N. Andrews.

Rome's Challenge: Why Do Protestants Keep Sunday?, by The Catholic Mirror.

The Sabbath From Eden to Sinai, by Sabbath Research Center.

Should Christians Frequent Restaurants on the Sabbath? By Randy Rondeau.

The Real Father’s Day, by Barbara Nickels de Parada.

Has Time Been Lost? Did past calendar changes upset the weekly cycle established at creation? This article proves that the Sabbath, the seventh day of the week, is the same day that Christ kept in the First Century.

Roman Catholic and Protestant Confessions about Sunday, by The Bible Sabbath Association.  Catholics and Protestants admit that the Bible authorizes Sabbath, not Sunday, observance.

Welcoming the Sabbath.

Three Sabbaths: the Lord’s Sabbath, Jewish Sabbath, Papal Sabbath, by E.J. Waggoner.

The Change of the Sabbath, by George I. Butler.

The Sabbath on Trial, series of articles by Daniel Botkin and others.

Spiritual Sabbathism, by A.H. Lewis. PDF File

A Critical History of Sabbath and Sunday in the Christian Church, by A.H. Lewis.

The Seventh Day Sabbath, by T.M. Preble.

Our Amazing Week, containing A Chart of the Week by Dr. William Mead Jones, PDF File.

God’s Sabbath for Mankind, by Richard A. Wiedenheft and Daniel W. Porter.  PDF file.

Sabbath Quiz
Matching, True-False, and Fill in the Blanks questions on the Sabbath. Answers are given at the end of the article. (See end of most sections for quizzes on that section.)


Holy Days, General Information
Miscellaneous material on Holy Days: God's Feast Days Picture God's Plan of Salvation. God's Three Harvest Seasons. Festival Themes. Seven Feast Days, Seven Doctrines. Beatitudes in the Feast Days. Seven Festivals, Seven Churches. Seven Annual Holy Days Picture Major Past and Future Events in God's Plan of Salvation. Some Holy Day Symbols and Types. Holy Days Among Early Believers. Josephus and Festival Fellowship. Philo on Sabbath and Holy Days. The Feasts of the Lord and Jewish Festivals. Three, Nineteen, and Seven.

Responding to Attack on God's Holy Days
Counters several common anti-Holy Day arguments contained in 1979 Bible Advocate article. Animal sacrifices are not necessary to observe the Holy Days, Jesus kept the Festivals and they are not only for Israel. Ten NT passages show we should keep the Holy Days. John's Gospel does not do away with the Feasts.

Pagan Holidays - or God's Holydays -Which?  by Herbert W Armstrong
How each one of the Holy Days fit into the Plan of God.

Holy Days or Feast Days?
Explains the difference between a Holy Day and a Feast Day. Tabernacles is not the only pilgrimage feast. There are three pilgrimage feasts each year: Passover/Unleavened Bread, Pentecost and Tabernacles. The days of Trumpets and Atonement are not feasts, but they are Holy Days.

What Should We Do During the Eternal's Feasts?
Eight things we should be doing three times a year at the Eternal's pilgrimage feasts.

God's Second Tithe
How Feasts have been perverted. Nehemiah shows proper Feast observance. Tithing is in force today, and there are three tithes. The second tithe is for observing the Festivals. Our responsibility to use 2T properly to satisfy seven basic festival needs.

Holy Day Words
An examination of Bible usage of 15 words or phrases relative to the Holy Days: moed, chag, paam, rehgel, atsereth, zikarown, aciph, qatsiyr, mikra kodesh, melakah abodah, hodesh, teruwah, shofar, succoth, and chuqqah.

The Forgotten Feasts
Purim and Hanukkah are mentioned in the Bible as festivals ordained, not by the Eternal, but by the Jews. What meaning do they have for us? The ninth of Av and other fast days are interesting reminders of the Eternal dealing with His people.

Did God Intend For the Holy Days To Be Fund-Raising Occasions?, by Tom Justus
God did not intend for the Holy Days to be a fund-raising occasion to raise money to send to a headquarters. Giving an offering at the feast should be entirely voluntary, and funds should be used to spread the Gospel.

What do You Mean, “You”?  Use of “Ye,” You” and “Your” in Leviticus 23 shows the responsibility of each one of to proclaim God’s Holy Days.

Seven Holy Day Offerings?  The tradition of taking up seven annual holy day offerings is not supported by Scripture.


Passover & Feast of Unleavened Bread Part 1
Passover & Feast of Unleavened Bread Part 2
Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread scriptures in the Old and New Testaments. History and traditions of Passover observance. Jewish Seder meal and Haggadah narrative. How Samaritans observe the Passover. Song of Songs and the meaning of the Passover.

Passover -- 14th or 15th?
Comprehensive explanation of why Passover is the 14th and not the 15th day of the first Biblical month. "Between the Two Evenings" means after sunset, before dark. Where the confusion about the Passover date began. Jesus kept the Old Testament Passover at His "Last Supper," instituting new emblems of bread and wine, instructing His followers to continue this observance.

Passover, Lord's Supper, or Communion?
"Lord's Supper" and "Communion" are not proper terms. We observe the "Christian Passover."

Drink the Pure Blood of the Grape
Fermented grape wine is the proper emblem of the Christian Passover to symbolize the Savior's blood shed for our sins. Explains symbolism and meaning of the cup we take at Passover.

The Order and Meaning of Passover
The correct Biblical order for the Christian Passover is footwashing, unleavened bread, fermented wine, scripture reading, singing psalms, and dismissal.

Instructions for Keeping the New Covenant Passover
Here are detailed instructions for keeping the Christian Passover in your own home or Church.

Why Do We Take the New Testament Passover?
How to examine oneself and be ready to take the NT Passover.

The New Testament Passover Ceremony
Detailed instructions for the Christian Passover service, how to make your own Passover bread.

Feast of Unleavened Bread: Putting Sin Out
We are to put sin out of our lives. Bible examples of sin, and how sin will be stopped. Seven characteristic sins of the church in this age, which culminate in the "Laodicean Attitude."

Polluted Bread for Passover?
Symbolism and meaning of the Passover bread. Reasons why white bread is not the proper kind to use for Passover services.

Recipes for the Days of Unleavened Bread
Hold the leaven! A collection of unleavened recipes.

Let a Man Examine Himself
Personal self-examination with the Almighty's help is required to be in the proper frame of mind to partake of the Passover.

Observance of the Passover. A concise explanation of why Passover is on the 14th, adapted from an article by Frank W. Nelte.

That Other Feast, by Dan L. White.  Shows the devastating consequences of abandoning the practice of observing a full 8-day Passover/Unleavened Bread Feast.

Days of Zeal Gone By.  Compares how the Feast of Unleavened Bread was observed in 1962 versus 2002.

Why Unleavened Bread? by Matthew J. Gaffney.  Why did the Almighty use the symbolism of unleavened bread?

Passover and You, by Delmar Leger.  Passover is a personal feast.

Short Questions:
Was Jesus’ Body Broken? | How to De-Leaven Your Dwellings |

Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread Quiz


Pentecost: Its Message for Christians Today
Pentecost scriptures in the Old and New Testaments. History and traditions of Pentecost observance. Reasons behind the date controversy. Pentecost as the commemoration of giving of Ten Commandments and the Spirit to keep God's Law. Whitsunday is pagan counterfeit of Pentecost. Ruth, Exodus, Psalms 42-72, Psalms 68 and Habakkuk 3 relate to Pentecost.

Pentecost, the Day of Difference
Pentecost always falls on a Monday. Thorough explanation of Deuteronomy 16. Counting Jubilee years proves Monday Pentecost. Those who have changed from a Monday to a Sunday Pentecost have lost vital truth about the life-long indissolubility of marriage and have succumbed to wide-open divorce and remarriage heresy.

24 Reasons Why I Believe in a Monday Pentecost
Twenty-four profound reasons for a Monday Pentecost given by Raymond C. Cole. Proof that the Worldwide Church of God never kept a Sunday Pentecost prior to 1974.

Why I Believe in a Monday Pentecost
Review and summary of major proofs for a Monday Pentecost.

Pentecost and the Second Century Calendar Adjustment
Shows why the Sacred Calendar needs periodic adjustments. Herman L. Hoeh's 1973 proof that the Hebrew calendar had to be adjusted in 161 A.D. by Simon III to avoid Monday Pentecost from falling in the summer, contrary to Sacred Calendar rules. If Pentecost were on Sunday, the adjustment would not have been required until two centuries later. Historical proof that the calendar was adjusted at this time demonstrates a Monday Pentecost.

Let us "Tarry" for Pentecost
We must sit down, patiently wait, be taught by an intimate relationship with the Eternal, and listen to Peter's sermon of Acts 2.

Pentecost is NOT on Sivan 6
An investigation of the "Sivan 6 Theory." Reasons why Pentecost is not Sivan 6. Meaning of the wavesheaf offering.

When Does the Pentecost Count Begin?
This article shows proof that Wavesheaf Sunday is the day following the Sabbath that falls during the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Joshua Chapter Five and the Wavesheaf Day, by Paul Yoos.
A thorough explanation of Joshua 5 shows that the Wavesheaf Day cannot be on a Holy Day.

Why Count Pentecost? by Kathy Puliafico.

50 Days, Not 49 Days, for the Pentecost Count.  The Bible says to count 50 days, then keep Pentecost.  Why do some count only 49 days?

Lessons for Pentecost.  What does the word, “Pentecost,” mean?

The Sunday Versus Monday Pentecost Debate.  Outline of the major issues in the Pentecost debate.

Pentecost Quiz

Trumpets scriptures in the Old and New Testaments. History and traditions of Trumpets observance. Why the time between Trumpets and Atonement is called the "Days of Awe." Day of Trumpets is a solemn time of covenant renewal.

Atonement scriptures in the Old and New Testaments. History and traditions of Atonement observance. Purpose of fasting and how Atonement relates to the Jubilee Year.


Tabernacles scriptures in the Old and New Testaments. History and traditions of Tabernacles observance. Meaning of dwelling in booths.
Is John 7:37-39 speaking of the seventh day of the Feast, or the Last Great Day?


How Does God's Calendar Work?
Explanation of Hebrew Calendar rules and why they make sense. Why ordering the calendar is difficult and why there is a 19-year time cycle. Lists of the Holy Days and New Moons to 2015 A.D. Calendar of Biblical events.

Calendar Controversy
Refutation of controversial arguments of anti-Hebrew calendar proponents. How the Bible rules for observing the Feast of Unleavened Bread demonstrate validity of Hebrew Calendar rules which prevent Holy Days from falling on certain days of the week. Views of Jewish sage Maimonides are superior to Karaite objections to calculation. How people today have adopted Karaite views. The "Equinox Theory" is false, which says that the spring equinox has everything to do with determining the first day of the Biblical year. Answers to those who say they can observe the New Moons for themselves. There is no "Bible Calendar." We should accept the of calendar rules preserved by the Jews.  See also Giving & Sharing Newsletter #71.

Review: The Calendar God Gave to Moses
Refutation of paper by Solinsky and Anderson. Proof that a visually observed calendar is an impossibility. Bible does not clearly show a relationship between ripe barley and first month called Abib.

Exodus 34:22 and the Calendar, by United Church of God.
Biblical use of the Hebrew word, tekufah, does not show this word is an equivalent for “equinox.”  The Bible does not define a calendar.

Holy Day and New Moon Calendar, 2006-2030

Computing the Biblical Calendar, by Ernest L. Martin

Order the book, The Comprehensive Hebrew Calendar, by Arthur Spier.

9. NEW MOONS: Their Significance for Christians Today
New Moons are the most neglected of the Eternal's Special Days. They will be observed in the Millennium and should be kept now as a time of worship and Bible Study.

New Moon Calendar, 1985-2015



Should a Christian Observe This World's Holidays?
Examination of the many different political, religious and special days of this world. We should not observe days rooted in paganism, such as New Year's Day (January 1), Easter, Halloween, and Christmas (December 25). We should observe God's special days, not the pagan holidays of man.

Christmas is NOT Christian
A thorough examination of the history and pagan background of Christmas and its customs.

Christmas Reinvented, by Kenneth Westby.
For the second time, Christmas is being reinvented! Its commercialization, now so frequently denounced, is what spawned the transformation in the first place. To turn Christmas into a purely religious celebration now, would go counter to history! The difference between Christmas and the biblical festivals is profound. The celebration of Christmas tells nothing about God, but a lot about paganism, parties, politics and how to create a successful commercial tradition.

Chislev, Chislev, & Christmas, by Daniel Botkin.

The Plain Truth About Easter, by Herbert W. Armstrong.
Easter observance comes from pagan customs. Christians should follow the Early Church and observe the Passover.

The Origin of Hallowe’en, by Gerhard O. Marx.  Where Did Hallowe’en Come From?

Halloween: "Learn Not The Way Of The Heathen" (Jeremiah 10:2), by Sidney Davis.
The history of Halloween shows that it is a pagan substitute for God's fall festivals.

“St. Valentine, Cupid, and Jesus Christ,” by Gary Petty

A listing of some of the major books available on the Sabbath and Holy Days.



Review of Dr. Bacchiocchi's God's Festivals
Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi presents many interesting insights about the Biblical Holy Days, albeit with significant typographical errors and lack of thorough research. Ellen G. White was not a Feast supporter, as he claims.

Colossians 2:16-17, by Larry Walker.
Pastor Walker thoroughly explains the chief scripture commonly used to refute the Sabbath and Holy Days.


(1) THE SABBATH. The Roman Calendar has not disrupted the weekly cycle instituted since creation. TheSabbath (Friday sunset to Saturday sunset), is made for man, Mark 2:27-28 to be a sign that He is our Mighty One and we are His people, Exodus 31:13-17. It is a type of the millennial rest of the Kingdom of God on this earth, Hebrews 4:1-11. We are to abstain from gainful employment during the Sabbath. Prior to the Sabbath we are to have our house in order, with heavy baking and meal preparation done as much as possible in advance. In this way, the Sabbath is a delight for the entire family, Exodus 20:8-11, Isaiah 58:13-14. As a holy time for physical rest, spiritual fellowship and extra Bible study and prayer, the Sabbath should be the crowning point of the week for every true believer.

(2) HOLY DAYS AND FEASTS. Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, etc. are poor pagan-derived substitutes for the Creator's annual Sabbaths (Holy Days) and Feasts. We are to shun false worship, Deuteronomy 12:29-32 and keep the Biblical Holy Days of Leviticus 23, which portray the Almighty's past and future dealings with mankind. Properly keeping these annual occasions produces joy and helps us understand His plan for us.

(a) New Testament Passover is to be observed at the beginning of the 14th day of the first month (Abib or Nisan), using the Creator's Calendar. Passover is in the early spring, March or April of each year. Passover is on the anniversary of the Eternal's deliverance of Israel from Egypt by a great plague on Egypt's firstborn. It was also the eve of our Savior's betrayal, arrest and death. After sundown, on the 14th, we wash one another's feet, partake of unleavened bread and wine (made from naturally fermented grapes), sing a hymn, and depart for our dwellings in solemn remembrance of our Deliverer and Redeemer. By this we remember our repentance, baptism, and acceptance of the Savior's sacrifice and His presence in our lives.

(b) Feast of Unleavened Bread starts on the beginning of the 15th day of the first month, with The Night to be Remembered, as a joyful gathering of the brethren in a festive meal with unleavened bread. This commemorates the departure of Israel from Egypt (a type of sin). We have previously put all leavening and leavened products out of our dwellings. Now for seven full days we eat only unleavened products and abstain from all leavening. This represents our earnest, heartfelt desire to put sin out of our lives, with the Eternal's help. It reminds us how easily sin enters into our lives. The first and last days of this Feast (Abib 15 and 21) are Holy Days (annual Sabbaths). No servile work is to be done on them. The whole seven-day Feast should be a time of fellowship, prayer and study.

(c) Feast of Pentecost, also known as Feast of Firstfruits, or Feast of Weeks, is 50 full days from the morrow after the Sabbath during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. This is the only Holy Day that does not fall on a specific calendar day. It is always on a Monday in late Spring. Pentecost is the memorial of the giving of the Ten Commandments from Mt. Sinai, and the giving of the Holy Spirit to the disciples, Acts 2.

(d) Day of Trumpets is an annual Holy Day Sabbath on the first day (New Moon) of the seventh month (Tishri) of the Holy Calendar. It is associated historically with the blowing of the trumpet in Israel which called the congregation together, sounded the alarm of war, and hailed the coronation of a new king. Also it pictures the future resurrection of the Almighty's people, regathering of Israel, crowning of Messiah as King of the whole world, and the great day of the battle of the Almighty (Armageddon). Trumpets is a joyful yet solemn yearly Sabbath.

(e) Day of Atonement is a fast on the 10th day of the seventh month. It is a day of prayer, reconciliation and confessing of sins. The ceremonies associated with Israel's worship on this day in Leviticus 16 are prophetic symbols of Satan's banishment (Azazel, the "scapegoat") and God's people being made at-one with Him. All baptized members abstain from all food and drink from the afternoon of the 9th day until after sunset at the end of the 10th day. A "Sabbath of Sabbaths," Atonement is a time of no work whatsoever. It is above all a spiritual day.

(f) Feast of Tabernacles is a seven day harvest feast from the 15th through the 21st day of the seventh month. It is the culmination of the Holy Day season. The first day is a Holy Day Sabbath. We are to live in temporary dwellings, picturing the time God led Israel through the wilderness, as well as the coming thousand year Kingdom of God on this earth. Tabernacles is a time to live with God's people, absorb daily sermons and engage in wholesome family and group recreation.

(g) Last Great Day is a joyful but solemn Holy Day Sabbath on the 22nd day of the seventh month. It pictures the time when, after the thousand years, the dead who never had an opportunity to understand the Eternal's ways will be raised. They will be given up to one hundred years of physical life to qualify for God's Kingdom. After that, all who have rejected the way of life will be cast into the Lake of Fire. The earth will be cleansed and replaced with a New Heavens and New Earth.

(3) NEW MOONS. Many professed believers ignore the New Moons. These times are not Holy Sabbath days of rest (except the Day of Trumpets, above), but nevertheless are important days of festive celebration, study and prayer. Some true believers are able to attend special meetings, such as Bible Studies. Without a pocket calendar reminder, you may forget the New Moon!

Let us observe all of the Almighty's times: Sabbaths, Feasts and Holy Days, and New Moons, II Chronicles 8:13. We should keep Biblical Holy Days, and not holidays of men.


Materials produced by: Richard C. Nickels
ISBN 1-887670-07-6

© Copyright 1986, 1997, 2000, 2003 by Sharing & Giving, Inc. Permission granted to copy this material, both in printed and electronic format, provided it is given away freely, and not altered in meaning.