College Notes
Church History
Lecture 20

The History of Education

A. Plato (c.300s B.C.).
     1. Lived in Athens.
     2. Plato's name wasn't always Plato; His name literally means, 'broad shoulders'.
     3. Established an academy.
         a. Co-educational
         b. Study methods: lecture, debate, and much memory work.

B. Dark Ages:
1. Repression of Education.
2. Education only within confines of the clergy.

C. Italy: Pre-Renaissance.
1. Called "Seat of Learning."
2. Small clusters called 'Universities'.
3. Teacher called 'Master' - having mastered a subject.
4. Universities were usually specialized into specific subjects.
5. Students formed Universities:
     a. Students in charge
     b. They hired and fired the masters
     c. Masters were poorly paid, and aided their income through begging
     d. Garment was designed (cap and gown) for begging
6. All learning was in the Latin language.
7. National clusters of their own nationality were called colleges in the confines of the university.
8. Universities made up of these small clusters - colleges.

D. France (1200s)
1. French established for the first time a University in Paris.
     a. Jealous of Italy
     b. Control now in hands of government instead of students.
     c. About 7,000 students
     d. Attracted best instructors and students
2. Sarbone - Frenchman related to education.
     a. He sponsored students in France
     b. Section of the University dedicated to him
3. Students paid their way through school.
     a. Through grants and aid
     b. Got sponsors
4. Abilard;
     a. Considered a heretic
     b. St. Thomas Quinas was on of his greatest students
5. Revolt at University in Paris...
     a. All students expelled - had to go somewhere
     b. England establishes a University in Oxford
     c. History disputes which 1st - Cambridge or Oxford

E. Early - mid 1500s.
1. Henry VIII.
     a. Sought support from universities Oxford and Cambridge in favor of divorce decrees
     b. All England becomes Protestant.
     c. Establishes New Church of England
2. Elizabeth I.
     a. Puritan college is established called “Emmanuel” by Sir Walter
     b. Queen against it persecutes
     c. Later moved to Holland and eventually to the New World

F. Early 1600s.
1. 132 Puritans go to New World.
2. John Harvard comes to America.
3. 1636 - People saw need to establish school to train clergy.
     a. School of religious learning was established outside of Boston and was called "the College"
     b. Harvard, at his death donated half his fortune to the Colledge
     c. Later changed name of the College to Harvard.
4. Harvard not first college in New World:
     a. University of Mexico was earlier
     b. Also a French University in Canada predates Harvard

G. Thomas Jefferson established the first secular university; the University of Virginia.

Index | Lecture 19 | Lecture 21